More than 100 temples of the chola period are preserved. Naturalizing buddhist cosmology in the temple architecture of china. It is the largest and tallest of all indian temples. In this article, we shall see the details of the chola temple architecture, which is an important part of dravidian temple architecture. Thus the cholas continued the temple building traditions of the pallava dynasty, who were influenced by the amaravathi school of architecture. The brihadeesvara temple stands as a supreme example of chola architecture.
The evolution of indian temple architecture is marked by a strict adherence to the. Bramantes ambition to create a unified urbanarchitectural scheme, and how this. The first stone and mortar temples of south india were constructed during pallava rule and were based on earlier brick and timber prototypes. The nageswaran temple, built by aditya chola, is older than the big temple by 100 years and because of waterblasting, we have lost many early chola treasures. Nicholas temple, university of huddersfield, school of art, architecture and design, faculty member. The first chola ruler vijayalaya chola built temple at narttamalai. It was completed around 1009 by rajaraja chola, and is the largest and tallest of all indian temples. The three chola temples in india are exemplary production in the dravidian style of temple architecture. Pallavas were the first recognisable south indian dynasty who indulged in the pursuit of architectural innovations. Interpreting an architectural past ram raz and the treatise in south.
Most of the chola temples were carved in the temple walls. Pallava dynasty was a pastoral tribe who ruled the southern parts of india for almost 500 years. The temple is located in thanjavur which is one of the largest cities in india and is located in tamil nadu. In later period maratta and nayaks rulers constructed various shrines and gopurams of the. Features of temple architecture of the chola empire. Architecture is an important area inside the culture topic. The chola dynasty was one of the longest ruling dynasties in the history of southern india, they utilised their prodigious wealth earned through their extensive conquests in building longlasting stone temples and exquisite bronze sculptures. Finally, various elements of ornamentation such as gavaksha, vyalayali, kalpalata, amalaka, kalasha, etc. The first seeds of dravidian temple architecture in tamil nadu were possibly sown during this period. They are on the south, north and western walls of the sanctum.
Pallava dynasty conquered the region of thondaimandalam that was located at pallavapuri, the pallava rulers established their kingdom on the ruins. Naidu, attempts to compare the chola temples with the earlier styles of architecture, trace the survival of chola features in the vijayanagar temples and also indicate the innovation made by the vijayanagar artists in their temples. We can see all these features at muvarkovil temple to know the glory of chola temple architecture. One of the most spectacular piece of south indian architecture, with due respect to the vijayanagara and pallava kingdoms, is the brihadeeswara temple in tanjavur. Temple architecture of high standard developed in almost all regions during ancient india.
A study of select temples of chittoor district chola and. The architecture of temple generally confines to five basic shapes. Pallava art and architecture represent an early stage of dravidian art and architecture which blossomed to its fullest extent under the chola dynasty. As i entered the main shrine i noticed the shiva figure emerging from the linga. Massive grandeur and huge structures decorated with minute sculptures are characteristics of chola art. The brihadeshwara temple rajrajeshwara temple at tanjore is classic example of dravida style of architecture under chola empire. Chola architecture 900 1150 adthe capital of the chola dynasty was the city of thanjavur from 836 1267 ad the great temple of thanjavur was founded by rajaraja i. Temple building received great impetus from the conquests and the genius of rajaraja chola and his son rajendra. A low enclosure wall embellished with sculptured niches surrounds it. Chola art and style of architecture india the destiny. The distinct architectural style of temple construction in different parts was a result of geographical, climatic, ethnic, racial, historical and linguistic diversities. Muttamil, denotes the three divisions of tamil viz.
Built on a scale appropriate enough to house the presiding deity, sri brihadeesvara, or the lord of the universe, the temple continues to excite wonder at its many unique architectural features and living presence as a centre of saiva devotion. These chola temples reveal the gradual evolution of the chola art and architecture. About the book in this detailed, intensive survey, documentation and study of the temples of chittoor region of south india, from 10th to 17th century, dr. The great living chola temples is a unesco world heritage site designation for a group of chola dynasty era hindu temples in the indian state of tamil nadu. In this context the indian hindu temple architecture are not only the abode of. An imposing structure the temple is the finest creation of chola craftsmen. Ancient indian temples are classified in three broad types. Some prominent features of temple architecture in the chola dynasty are enunciated here.
These temples have garbhagriha, vimana and circumbulatory corridor and the huge sculptures. Upsc questions related to the topic culture are not so easy to prepare. Rajendra chola built a temple at gangaikonda cholapuram which is also equally famous. Pdf the art and architectures along the tamil nadu coast. Temples, first rockcut type and then made of stones, made their appearance from the 8th century. In early roman temples and palaces the greek style was long carefully. Pallava dynasty, history of pallava dynasty, pallava. In later period maratta and nayaks rulers constructed various shrines and gopurams of the temple. The entrance gopuram were buit with famous sandstone. Today when we say temple in english we generally mean a devalaya, devkula mandir, kovil, deol. Temple architecture in india ncert notes most of the art and architectural remains that survive from ancient and medieval india are religious in nature. Situated in the southern state of tamil nadu, this world heritage site comprises the three great 11 th and 12 th century chola temples. Caturasra square, ayatasra rectangular, vrittayat elliptical, vritta circular, astasra octagonal. It is quite a distinctive feature of the chola architecture, which makes it different from all the.
This chola temple is bigger than any of the previous pallava, chalukya or pandya structures. Looking at it, one has to redefine the normal notions of size. The temple shiva at gangaikonda cholapuram built by rajendra 1 chola 1018 to 1033 a. Studies architectural history, architectural theory, and. Nicholas v 144755, the proposal initially entailed a partnership with the. Chola temples chola bronze sculptures were intended for temple ritual.
Dravida temple architecture origin and development. The chola art and architecture had the influence of the pallavas and other contemporary art and architecture schools, which in turn helped. Moovar koil another milestone in the early medieval chola architecture is located at kodumbalur near from pudukkottai and was constructed in the 10 th century by a chola general. The original chola paintings, so far brought to surface, are mainly in the corridors of the ambulatory around the sanctum. The plan of a temple is dictated by the nature of the deity. Completed between early 11th and the 12th century ce, the monuments include the brihadisvara temple at thanjavur, the temple of gangaikonda cholapuram and the airavatesvara temple at darasuram.
There are several important temples there and kailasanathar temple for lord shiva is one among the crown jewel of temples. The dravidian temple architecture started by the pallavas got matured at the hand of the cholas. D the son of sundara chola parantakaaii and vanavanmahadevi built this magnificent temple named brihadisvaram at tanjore the capital of chola dynasty. It is the greatest step taken by rajaraja chola in the evolution of temple architecture in the south. Temple india hindu temple buddhist temple temple architecture ancient architecture beautiful architecture places around the world the places youll go temples tamil nadus most awesome chola monument. Great living chola temples unesco world heritage centre. Nicholas temple university of huddersfield academia. Hindu temples, was an intellectual exercise rooted in the subcontinents. The dvarapalas, or guardian figures, at the entrance to the mandapa, or hall which started from the palava period became a unique feature of the chola temples the dravidian style got fully developed after a transition from the rock cut structures of the pallava period. The rituals marking the beginning of temple construction, like. Cholan craftsmenship extended beyond temple architecture to include bronze image making.
In aihole, known as the cradle of indian architecture, there are over. During this golden age, the artsmusic and dance, poetry and drama, architecture and sculptureflourished. Gangaikondan cholapuram temple is another such example. This is a magnificient 0 years old temple with exquisite sandstone sculptures estimated to be constructed somewhere between 685 ad to 705 ad by the pallava dynasty king rajasimha narasimhavarman ii.
Moovar koil meaning temple of three gods in tamil, this temple complex had three temples only two of which survive today. The size of the temple was huge and the tower itself 190ft high. The stones are smaller and laid out in regular neat rows. The cholas ruled the deccan and emerged victorious among many other kingdoms such as pallavas, pandyas, chalukyas, rashtrakutas. The main reason being lack of quality study materials which explain the same in simple language. The statue of nandi, the bull, is situated at the entrance whose length is about 4. One common feature between all chola temples like the airavatesvara temple is the idol of shiva. The muktesvara temple the muktesvara temple is regarded as a gem of orissan architecture. The earliest and most remarkable evidence of indian architecture is found in the cities of the harappan civilization which boast of a unique town planning.
It is one of the finest examples of the early chola temple architecture. The chola school of art also spread to southeast asia and influenced the architecture and art of southeast asia. A lot of temples were constructed during the chola period. Indian temple architecture evolution, type, design. Temple architecture in india ncert notes pdf download. The chola temple architecture has been appreciated for its magnificence as well as delicate workmanship.
Brhadeeswara temple 3 brihadeeswara temple was built by rajaraja chola in 10101ad. Many distinctive features that we find in the architecture today developed throughout the long period of indian history. Temple architecture in india ncert notes pdf download that does not mean that people did not have art in their homes at those times, but domestic dwellings and the things in them were mostly made from materials like wood and clay. Chola temple architecture chola art was an extension of the pallava era cholas building several 100 temples, some of which were modest in size while others were massive with vimanas or gopuras chola architecture is epitomised by the temple of koranganatha at trichinopoly constructed by parantaka i 907949 ad.
Download it once and read it on your kindle device. Pdf building science of indian temple architecture shilpa. The best example ofchola temple architecture is the brihadeswara temple at tanjore. The great living chola temples were built by kings of the chola empire, which stretched over all of south india and the neighbouring islands. The site includes three great 11th and 12thcentury temples. The project gutenberg ebook of architecture, by nancy r e meugens bell this. Ancient indian architecture part iv tempe architecture. Temple architecture and sculpture 6 today when we say temple in english we generally mean a devalaya, devkula mandir, kovil, deol, devasthanam or prasada depending on which part of india we are in. The project gutenberg ebook of architecture, by mrs. In the visual culture reader, edited by nicholas mirzoeff.
The magnificent temple of brihadisvara at thanjavur is a splendorous jewel of indian temple art and architecture. The temple architecture evolved from the early cave temples and monolith temples of mamallapuram to the kailasanatha and vaikuntaperumal temples. The chola temples were profoundly constructed by following the vastu shastra. The foundation of cave temple architecture on the banks of malaprabha river originated in karnataka during 500 and 757 ce. King rajendra chola added credit to the chola art and architecture. Architecture, perspective and redemptive space kindle edition by nicholas temple. These are characteristic architectural designs of chola temples carved in temple walls. Chola art and architecture art and culture for upsc preparation duration.1470 854 1599 257 1544 418 736 1658 369 909 1527 226 65 682 1512 1257 218 1368 132 292 596 750 180 1565 218 402 182 25 1400 741 405 1283 473